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HOW TO RETURN index doc: PUT {} IN where FOR line.no IN keys doc: TREAT LINE RETURN where TREAT LINE: FOR word IN split doc[line.no]: IF word not.in keys where: PUT {} IN where[word] INSERT line.no IN where[word]
PROGRAM ONE WHEEL " Simple model of a dynamical system " written in ACSL 1, circa 1982. INITIAL CINTERVAL CINT = 0.05 ALGORITHM IALG = 4 $ "RK3" CONSTANT X1IO = 0.0, X2IO=0.0, X1DIC=0.0, X2DIC = 0.0 CONSTANT M1 = 25.0, M2=2.0, DF=100.0, K2=5000 CONSTANT TDONE = 15.0 K1 = 1000.0 END $ "OF INITIALIZATION" DYNAMIC DERIVATIVE X3= STEP(0.0) X1D = INTEG((-DF/M1)*(X1D-X2D) - (K1/M1)*(X1-X2), X1DIC) X2D = INTEG((-DF/M1)*(X1D-X2D) - (K1/M1)*(X1-X2), ... (K2/M2)*(X2-X3*5.0), X2DIC) X1 = INTEG(X1D,X1IO) X2 = INTEG(X2D,X2IO) END "OF DERIVATIVE SECTION" TERMT(T .GE. TDONE) END "OF DYNAMIC SECTION" END "OF PROGRAM"
-- simple programming with floating-point #s with Ada.Float_Text_IO; use Ada.Float_Text_IO; procedure Think is A, B : Float := 0.0; -- A and B initially zero; note the period. I, J : Integer := 1; begin A := B * 7.0; I := J * 3; B := Float(I) / A; Put(B); end Think;
/* An Alef program to parse numbers out of * the string returned from /dev/time, and * print them from a separate proc. This is * a rather lame conglomeration of several * examples from Bob Flandrea's Alef * User's Guide */ tuple(int, uint, byte*) strtoui(byte* str, int base) { int val; while(*str != 0 && whitespace(*str)) str ; if(str == nil || *str == 0) return(0, 0, str); while(*str && !whitespace(*str)) { if(!validdigit(*str, base)) return (-1, val, str 1); /* extract digit into val */ str ; } return(1, val, str); } void receive(chan(uint) c) { int s; s = <-c; print("%d\n", s); if (s == 0) terminate(nil); } void main(void) { chan(uint) c; alloc c; proc receive(c); int ret; uint val; int fd; byte *p, buf[128], *newp; fd = open("/dev/time", OREAD|OCEXEC); if (fd >= 0) { read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf)); for(p = buf; *p; p = newp) { (ret, val, newp) = strtoui(p, 10); if(ret >= 0) c <-= val; if(ret == 0) break; } } }
// the main program, calculate the mean of // some numbers begin integer N; Read Int(N); begin real array Data[1:N]; real sum, avg; integer i; sum:=0; for i:=1 step 1 until N do begin real val; Read Real(val); Data[i]:=if val<0 then -val else val end; for i:=1 step 1 until N do sum:=sum Data[i]; avg:=sum/N; Print Real(avg) end end
Here is a better example, written in the
Algol60 publication language, from
Jean Sammet courtesy of
Glyn Webster.
procedure problem (a, b); value a, b; integer a, b; begin integer k; real e; for k := 2 × (a ÷ 2) 1 step 2 until b do begin e := if prime(k) then sqrt(3 × k sin(k)) else sqrt(4 × k cos(k)); if prime(k) then putlist(k, e, 'prime') else putlist(k, e, 'nonprime') end end problem;
-- Use the Finder to close all applications -- (by Joshua D. Baer) property specialApps : {"Finder"} tell application "Finder" set allApps to name of processes end tell repeat with someParticularApp in allApps if specialApps does not contain someParticularApp then tell application someParticularApp activate quit end tell end if end repeat
;; Very simple example of interactive extension ;; for AutoCAD (Defun c:SF2ACRE () (setq SF (getreal "Enter area in square feet: ")) (setq AGREAGE (/ SF 43560.0)) (alert (strcat "\nThe area in acres is " (rtos ARGEAGE 2 2))) )
BEGIN { if ("'$#argv'"==1) Col="'$1'"; else Col=1 } {Total = $Col; }; END { printf "Total for column %d with %d items: %d\n", Col,NR,Total }
REM Very very simple QBasic program PRINT "My Menu" PRINT "Press 1 to clear the screen, or 2 to say 'Hello'!" INPUT "What do you want to do"; choice IF choice = 1 THEN GOTO clrscr IF choice = 2 THEN GOTO hello clrscr: CLS PRINT "Done." END hello: PRINT "Hello, hello, hello!" END
// Routine to compute a checksum of a // named file, simplified from a compiler example. GET "libhdr" LET start() = VALOF $( LET args = VEC 50 LET instream = 0 LET outstream = 0 LET sum = 314159 IF rdargs("FROM/A,TO/K", args, 50) = 0 DO $( writes("Bad arguments for CHECKSUM*n") RESULTIS 20 $) instream := findinput(args!0) IF instream = 0 DO $( writef("can't open %s*n", args!0) RESULTIS 20 $) selectinput(instream) UNLESS args!1 = 0 DO $( outstream := findoutput(args!1) IF outstream = 0 DO $( writef("can't open %s*n", args!1) endread() RESULTIS 20 $) $) $( LET ch = rdch() IF ch=endstreamch BREAK sum := (13*sum + ch) & #xFFFFFFF $) REPEAT UNLESS outstream=0 DO selectoutput(outstream) writef("%n*n", sum) out: endread() UNLESS outstream = 0 DO $( selectoutput(outstream) endwrite() $) RESULTIS 0 $)
v>00p10p>00g:10g\/v ^:&< |:-1p00/2+< >93*^ >00g.@
A Befunge program to generate random integers (by Ken Bateman):
088+>v >+\^1@ 1 \-. >? ^:\ ^+:\_^
(* Link describes a linked list *) Link: (# succ: ^Link; (* tail of this Link *) elm: @integer; (* content element of this Link *) Insert: (* Insert an element after this Link *) (# E: @integer; R: ^Link; enter E do &Link[]->R[]; (* R denotes a new instance of Link *) E->R.elm; (* E=R.elm *) succ[]->R.succ[]; (* tail of this Link = tail of R *) R[]->succ[]; (* R=tail of this Link *) #) #) (* Test the linked list *) (# head: @Link do 1->head.Insert; 2->head.Insert; 6->head.Insert; 24->head.Insert; ( * head = (0 24 6 2 1) *) #)
DEFINE PROCEDURE "GOLDBACH?" [N]: BLOCK 0: BEGIN CELL(0) <= 2; LOOP AT MOST N TIMES: BLOCK 1: BEGIN IF {PRIME?[CELL(0)] AND PRIM[MINUS[N,CELL(0)]]}, THEN: BLOCK 2: BEGIN OUTPUT <= YES; QUIT BLOCK 0; BLOCK 2: END CELL(0) <= CELL(0) + 1; BLOCK 1: END BLOCK 0: END
#include <stdio.h> /* count lines of standard input */ main(int argc, char *argv[]) { char lbuf[256]; int lcnt; for(lcnt = 0; fgets(lbuf,sizeof(lbuf) - 1, stdin); cnt ); printf("%d lines\n", lcnt); exit(0); }
// Adapted from the paper "The C* Parallel // Programming Language" by Andrews and Barszcz, 1992. // Skyline Matrix Problem solution #define N 4 #define BIG 1024 domain Matrix { float a; int i; int j; } A[N][N]; domain RHS { float b; int i; } B[N]; domain Skyline { float s; int i; int j; } SKY[BIG]; domain Vector { float element; int start; } I[N], J[N]; void main() { int k,l,m; float x[N], element; float rowsum, pivot; int NonZeros; readMatrix(); [domain RHS].{ i = (int)(this - &B[0]); } [domain Matrix].{ int offset = (int) (this - &A[0][0]); i = offset / N; j = offset % N; } for(k = 0; k<N; k ) { rowsum = 0; [domain Matrix].{ if (i == k) rowsum = a; } B[k].b = rowsum; } NonZeros = map(); /* put matrix in skyline form? */ for(k=0; k<(N-1); k ) { [domain Skyline].{ if ((i ==k) && (j==k)) Pivot ,= s; if (((i>k) && (j==k)) && (I[i].start <= k)) { s = s / Pivot; I[i].element = s; } if (((i==k) && (j > k)) && (J[j].start <= k)) J[j].element = s; if (((i > k) && (j > k)) && ((I[i].start <= k) && J[j].start <= k)) s = s - (I[i].element * J[j].element); } } for(k = (N-1); k > 0; k--) { [domain Skyline].{ if (((i <= k) && (j ==k)) && (J[k].start <= k)) J[j].element = s; } x[k] ,= B[k].b / J[j].element; [domain Skyline].{ if ((i < k) && (J[k].start < k)) b = b - (J[j].element * x[k]); } } [domain Skyline].{ if (i == 0 && j == 0) Pivot ,= s; } x[0] = B[0].b / Pivot; printf("x\n"); for(k = 0; k<N; k ) printf("%f\n",x[k]); }
// This is just a placehold until I write a // better example. #include <iostream.h> #include <String.h> main(int argc, char *argv[]) { String *s1; s1 = new String("Hello World!"); cout << *s1 << endl << "Length is:" << s1->length() << endl; }
-- Adapted from Cecil Project v2.0 distribution tests method copy_file_using_streams(name1@:string, name2@:string):void { let f1:unix_file := open_file(name1, open_for_reading); let f2:unix_file := open_file(name2, create_for_writing); (name1 || " is " || if(f1.is_unreadable, {"not "}, {""}) || "readable"). print_line; (name2 || " is " || if(f2.is_unreadable, {"not "}, {""}) || "readable"). print_line; while({ f1.before_end }, { f2.next := f1.next; }); close(f1); close(f2); } let var name1 := ask("Name of input file: "); let var name2 := ask("Name of output file: "); print("Copying using streams..."); copy_file_using_streams(name1, name2); print_line(" done.");
<CFSWITCH EXPRESSION="#ThisTag.ExecutionMode#"> <CFCASE VALUE="start"> <CFIF StructIsEmpty(attributes.EMPINFO)> <CFOUTPUT>Error. No employee data was passed.</CFOUTPUT> <CFEXIT METHOD="ExitTag"> <CFELSE> <!--- Add the employee ---> <CFQUERY NAME="AddEmployee" DATASOURCE="cfsnippets"> INSERT INTO Employees (FirstName, LastName, Email, Phone, Department) VALUES <CFOUTPUT> ( ‘#StructFind(attributes.EMPINFO, "firstname")#’ , ‘#StructFind(attributes.EMPINFO, "lastname")#’ , ‘#StructFind(attributes.EMPINFO, "email")#’ , ‘#StructFind(attributes.EMPINFO, "phone")#’ , ‘#StructFind(attributes.EMPINFO, "department")#’ ) </CFOUTPUT> </CFQUERY> </CFIF> <CFOUTPUT><HR>Employee Add Complete</CFOUTPUT> </CFCASE> </CFSWITCH>
-- still looking for a good code example
#include <cilk.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> cilk int fib(int n) { if (n < 2) return (n); else { int x, y; x = spawn fib(n - 1); y = spawn fib(n - 2); sync; return (x y); } } cilk int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int n, result; n=atoi(argv[1]); result=spawn fib(n); sync; printf("Result: %d\n", result); return 0; }
// Very simple Fibonnacci example adapted from v2.1 // "Introduction to the CLAIRE Programming Language" begin(fib_module) fib[n:(0..10)] : integer := (if (n < 2) 1 else fib[n - 1] fib[n - 2]) test() -> (for i in (0 .. 10) printf("fib(~S) = ~S\n",i,fib[i]) end(fib_module)
% Driver and function to compute factorials % from the PCLU distribution. start_up = proc () pi: stream := stream$primary_input() po: stream := stream$primary_output() while true do stream$puts(po, "Enter an integer (or RETURN to exit): ") s: string := stream$getl(pi) if string$empty(s) then break end n: int := int$parse(s) except when bad_format: stream$putl(po, "Illegal integer") end stream$putl(po, int$unparse(n) || "! = " || int$unparse(factorial(n))) except when negative: stream$putl(po, "Integer must be positive") when overflow: stream$putl(po, "Overflow") end end end start_up factorial = proc (n: int) returns (int) signals (negative, overflow) if n < 0 then signal negative end if n = 0 then return(1) end return(n*factorial(n-1)) resignal overflow end factorial
Insufficient documentation for producing a reasonable example.
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION PROGRAM-ID. SUM-OF-PRICES. AUTHOR. TERENCE-PRATT. SOURCE. PROGRAMMING-LANGUAGES-2ND-EDITION-1984 ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. FILE-CONTROL. SELECT INP-DATA ASSIGN TO INPUT. SELECT RESULT-FILE ASSIGN TO OUTPUT. DATA DIVISION. FILE SECTION. FD INP-DATA LABEL RECORD IS OMITTED. 01 ITEM-PRICE 02 ITEM PICTURE X(30). 02 PRICE PICTURE 9999V99. 02 FILLER PICTURE X(44). FD RESULT-FILE LABEL RECORD IS OMITTED. 01 RESULT-LINE PICTURE X(132). WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 77 TOT PICTURE 999999V99, VALUE 0, USAGE IS COMPUTATIONAL. 77 COUNT PCITURE 9999, VALUE 0, USAGE IS COMPUTATIONAL. 01 SUM-LINE. 02 FILLER VALUE ' SUM ='PICTURE X(12). 02 SUM-OUT PICTURE $$,$$$,$$9.99. 02 FILLER VALUE ' NO. OF ITEMS ='PICTURE X(21). 02 COUNT-OUT PICTURE ZZZ9.99. 01 ITEM-LINE. 02 ITEM-OUT PICTURE X(30). 02 PRICE-OUT PICTURE ZZZ9.99. PROCEDURE DIVISION. START. OPEN INPUT INP-DATA AND OUTPUT RESULT-FILE. READ-DATA. READ INP-DATA AT END GO TO PRINT-LINE. ADD PRICE TO TOT. ADD 1 TO COUNT. MOVE PRICE TO PRICE-OUT. MOVE ITEM TO ITEM-OUT. WRITE RESULT-LINE FROM ITEM-LINE. GO TO READ-DATA. PRINT-LINE. MOVE TOT TO SUM-OUT. MOVE COUNT TO COUNT-OUT. WRITE RESULT-LINE FROM SUM-LINE. CLOSE INP-DATA AND RESULT-FILE. STOP RUN.
;; An example of array search from the common ;; lisp standard (defun finder (obj vec start end) (let ((range (- end start))) (if (zerop range) (if (eql obj (aref vec start)) obj nil) (let ((mid ( start (round (/ range 2))))) (let ((obj2 (aref vec mid))) (if (< obj obj2) (finder obj vec start (- mid 1)) (if (> obj obj2) (finder obj vec ( mid 1) end) obj)))))))
// Solution to Hamming's problem in Clean, // generate an infinite sorted stream of numbers // of the form (2^n)*(3^m)*(5*p). From the examples // distributed with Concurrent Clean v1.2. Ham::[Int] Ham = y where y = [1:merge (merge (map ((*) 2) y) (map ((*) 3) y)) (map ((*) 5) y)] merge [] [] = [] merge f [] = f merge [] f = f merge f=:[a:b] g=:[c:d] | a<c = [a:merge b g] | a==c = merge f d | otherwise = [c: merge f d] Start::[Int] Start = take NrElements Ham NrElements :== 300 // Size of finite sample to take.
{ A small example monitor and process from Hansen's 1993 } { paper given at HOPL-II. } type linebuffer = monitor var contents : line; full : Boolean; sender, receiver : queue; procedure entry receive(var text : line); begin if not full then delay(receiver); text := contents; full := false; continue(sender); end; procedure entry send(text : line); begin if full then delay(sender); contents := text; full := true; continue(receiver); end; begin full := false; end; { linebuffer } type printerprocess = process(buffer: linebuffer) var param : ioparam; text : line; begin param.operation := output; cycle buffer.receive(text); repeat io(text,param,printdevice) until param.status = complete; end end;
WITHOBJECT "CorelPhotoPaint.Automation.7" .SetDocumentInfo 96, 96 .MaskSelectAll .EditCopy .ImagePapersize 192, 96, 0, 0, 5, 255, 255, 255, 0 .MaskInvert .EditPasteIntoSelection .MaskChannelAdd "Alpha 1" .MaskBorder 4, 1 .ImageBCI -20, 0, 0 .EndColorEffect .MaskChannelToMask 0, 0 offset% = 50 BEGIN DIALOG Dialog4 182, 79, "Corel SCRIPT Dialog" SPINCONTROL 91, 12, 76, 18, offset% TEXT 28, 17, 55, 11, "Offset amount:" OKBUTTON 56, 50, 69, 21 END DIALOG X = Dialog(Dialog4) .EffectOffset 0, offset%, TRUE, 0 .MaskRemove END WITHOBJECT
#!/bin/csh # A simple csh script to find a command on # the directories listed in the environment # variable PATH, and print out information # about it. set cmd=$1 if ("$cmd" == "") then echo "Usage: findcmd commandname" exit 1 endif set cnt=0 foreach dir ($path) set check="$dir/$cmd" if (-x "$check" && ! (-d "$check")) then file $check ls -ldg $check set cnt=$cnt 1 endif end if ($cnt == 0) then echo "Sorry, command $cmd not found." exit 1 else exit 0 endif
PHIL = *[ ...During n'th lifetime THINK; room!enter( ); fork(i)!pickup( ); fork((i 1) mod 5)!pickup; EAT; fork(i)!putdown( ); fork((i 1) mod 5)!putdown( ); room!exit( ); ] FORK = *[ phil(i)?pickup( ) -> phil(i)?putdown( ); [] phil((i - 1) mod 5)?pickup( ) -> phil((i - 1) mod 5)?putdown( ); ROOM = occupancy:integer; occupancy = 0; *[(i:0..4)phil(i)?enter( ) -> occupancy := occupancy 1; [] (i:0..4)phil(i)?exit( ) -> occupancy := occupancy - 1; MAIN = [room::ROOM || fork(i:0..4)::FORK || phil(i:0..4)::PHIL].
* A subroutine to draw 1-d chaos, from a * sample program by Bruce Sherwood. unit chaos f: pop, rate $$ population and growth rate i: n, TRIES=40, base=8 i: usecolor f: h, s, v calc usecolor := (zncolors >= 8 base) palette zred,100,0,0,zwhite if usecolor loop n := 0,7 $$ make hues from blue to red getrgb 240[1-(n 1)/8],100,100; h, s, v palette base n,h,s,v endloop endif color zwhite do graph color zred loop rate := 2.7, 3.99, .01 calc pop := .1 $$ starting population loop n := 1, TRIES * New population is rate times current population * times a resource-limiting factor (1-pop): calc pop := rate*pop*(1-pop) if usecolor color base int(8(n-1)/TRIES) elseif TRIES-n > 8 reloop endif gfill rate,pop;rate .01,pop .005 endloop endloop
The syntax of Curry is complex, compact, and similar to that of Haskell. Each statement of a Curry program is an equation or predicate. Executing a Curry program consists of simplifying equations and expressions until a particular specified goal is reached or a particular solution is obtained. Primitive data types supported by Curry include booleans, integers, reals, chars, and strings. Aggregate and specialized data types include tuples, lists, functions, and constraints. Oddly enough, Curry uses the same comment syntax as Ada. The module construct serves to encapsulate libraries of functions, data types, and expressions. The module seems to be the only program structuring facility in Curry.
Like many functional languages, Curry supports a declarative I/O model. This kind of model basically represents input and output operations as expressions involving 'the World'.
Some of the advanced features of Curry are listed below.
As an academic project, implementations of Curry are available free. Documentation is available on the web, but almost exclusively in DVI format.
Several implementations of Curry exist. The most viable one seems to be PACS, the Portland Aachen Curry System. It is a compiler that translates Curry programs into various intermediate forms: Prolog or Java. Free downloads of PACS for UNIX systems are available from RWTH Aachen. Other Curry implementations are interpreters written in Prolog.
There has been a trend in the 1990s to try to integrate ideas from some of the most powerful computer programming research paradigms. Curry, like LEDA and NIAL, is an example of this trend.
-- quicksort using higher-order functions: -- filter elements in a list (predefined as `filter'): filter_ :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]; filter_ _ [] = [] filter_ p (x:xs) = if p x then x : filter_ p xs else filter_ p xs qsort :: [Int] -> [Int] qsort [] = [] qsort (x:l) = qsort (filter (< x) l) x : qsort (filter (>= x) l)
// A naive Quicksort in Dylan by Jon Sobel define method quicksort (data ::) => sorted-data ::
; if (empty?(data) | empty?(tail(data))) data; else collect(head(data), tail(data), #(), #()); end if; end method quicksort; define method collect (pivot, data ::
, left-side, right-side) => sorted-data ::
; case empty?(data) => concatenate(quicksort(left-side), pair(pivot, quicksort(right-side))); (pivot < head(data)) => collect(pivot, tail(data), left-side, pair(head(data), right-side)); otherwise => collect(pivot, tail(data), pair(head(data), left-side), right-side); end case; end method collect;
/* A simple class to maintain an int built up * from prime factors. Adapted from examples * in the Dynace Manual. */ defclass BuiltInt { unsigned long iRunningValue; class: int cCntInstances; }; cmeth gNew() { object obj; obj = gNew(super); cCntInstances += 1; ivType *iv; iv = ivPtr(obj); runningValue = 1; return obj; } imeth void addFactor(unsigned long fac) { iRunningValue *= fac; return; } imeth unsigned long getValue() { return iRunningValue; } imeth object gDeepDispose, gDispose () { cCntInstances -= 1; gDispose(super self); return 0; }
class ACCOUNT feature balance: INTEGER; owner: PERSON; minimum_balance: INTEGER is 1000 open (who: PERSON) is -- Assign the account to owner who. do owner := who end deposit (sum: INTEGER) is -- Deposit sum into the account. do add (sum) end withdraw (sum: INTEGER) is -- Withdraw sum from the account. do add (-sum) end may_withdraw (sum: INTEGER): BOOLEAN is -- Is there enough money to withdraw sum? do Result := (balance >= sum + minimum_balance) end feature {NONE} add (sum: INTEGER) is -- Add sum to the balance. do balance := balance + sum end end -- class ACCOUNT
;; Simple Elisp example (defconst date-pattern-1 "\\(1?[0-9]\\)/\\([123]?[0-9]\\)/\\([0-9][0-9]\\)" "Regexp for one style of data string") (defun replace-all-dates () "Replace 1/27/93 dates with 27-1-93 dates" (interactive) (let ((mcount 0)) (while (re-search-forward date-pattern-1 nil t) (replace-match "\\2-\\1-\\3" nil nil) (setq mcount (+ 1 mcount))) (message (format "Replaced %d dates" mcount))) )
-module(sort). -export([sort/1]). sort([]) -> []; sort([Pivot|Rest]) -> {Smaller, Bigger} = split(Pivot, Rest), lists:append(sort(Smaller), [Pivot|sort(Bigger)]). split(Pivot, L) -> split(Pivot, L, [], []). split(Pivot, [], Smaller, Bigger) -> {Smaller, Bigger}; split(Pivot, [Hd|Tl], Smaller, Bigger) when Hd < Pivot -> split(Pivot, Tl, [Hd|Smaller], Bigger); split(Pivot, [Hd|Tl], Smaller, Bigger) when Hd >= Pivot -> split(Pivot, T, Smaller, [Hd|Bigger]).
Alternative version using Erlang 4.4 features:
-module(sort). -export([sort/1]). sort([Pivot|T]) -> sort([ X || X <- T, X < Pivot]) ++ [Pivot] ++ sort([ X || X <- T, X >= Pivot]); sort([]) -> [].
MODULE Lambda. CONSTRUCT Person/0. FUNCTION Jane, Mary, John: One -> Person. FUNCTION Mother : Person * Person -> Boolean. Mother(x,y) => x=Jane & y=Mary. FUNCTION Wife : Person * Person -> Boolean. Wife(x,y) => x=John & y=Jane. FUNCTION PrimitiveRel : (Person * Person -> Boolean) -> Boolean. PrimitiveRel(r) => r=Mother \/ r=Wife. FUNCTION Rel : (Person * Person -> Boolean) -> Boolean. Rel(r) => PrimitiveRel(r) \/ (SOME [r1,r2] (r = LAMBDA [u] (SOME [z] (r1(Fst(u),z) & r2(z,Snd(u)))) & PrimitiveRel(r1) & PrimitiveRel(r2))).
module AVERAGE: input INCREMENT_AVERAGE(integer); output AVERAGE_VALUE(integer); var TOTAL := 0, NUMBER := 0, : integer in every immediate INCREMENT_AVERAGE do TOTAL := TOTAL + ? INCREMENT_AVERAGE; NUMBER := NUMBER + 1; emit AVERAGE_VALUE (TOTAL / NUMBER) end end.
-- Prime sieve benchmark, adapted from Euphoria 2.0beta demos constant ON = 1, OFF = 0, SIZE = 5000, BATCH = 20 function sieve() sequence flags integer prime, start, count, still_prime count = 0 flags = repeat(ON, SIZE) for i = 1 to SIZE do still_prime = flags[i] if still_prime then prime = 2 * i prime = prime + 1 start = prime + i for k = start to SIZE by prime do flags[k] = OFF end for count = count + 1 end if end for return count end function atom t, cycles, p cycles = 0 t = time() while time() < t + 30 do -- test for 30 seconds for iter = 1 to BATCH do p = sieve() end for cycles = cycles + BATCH end while t = time() - t printf(1, "%6.1f sieves per second\n", cycles / t)
DEFINE PROCEDURE ''DIVIDE'' [DIVIDEND, DIVISOR]: BLOCK 0: BEGIN IF DIVISOR < 1, THEN: QUIT BLOCK 0; CELL(0) <= DIVIDEND; LOOP AT MOST DIVIDEND TIMES: BLOCK 1: BEGIN IF CELL(0) < DIVISOR, THEN: QUIT BLOCK 0; CELL(0) <= MINUS[CELL(0), DIVISOR]; OUTPUT <= OUTPUT + 1; BLOCK 1: END; BLOCK0: END. DEFINE PROCEDURE ''PERFECT?'' [N]: BLOCK 0: BEGIN CELL(0) <= 0; CELL(1) <= 0; LOOP DIVIDE [N,2] TIMES: BLOCK 1 BEGIN: CELL(1) <= CELL(1) + 1; IF REMAINDER[N,CELL(1)] = 0, THEN: CELL <= CELL(0) + CELL(1); BLOCK 1 END; IF CELL(0) = N THEN: OUTPUT <= YES; BLOCK 0: END.
C FORMAC program to find the symbolic roots of some C quadratic equations. By J. Sammet from the HOPL-II C paper on the history of FORMAC, typos corrected. SYMARG ATOMIC X,Y,K DIMENSION CASE(3), X1(3), x2(3) LET CASE(1) = X**2 + 2*X*(Y+1) + (Y+1)**2 LET CASE(2) = 2 * X**2 - 4*X LET CASE(3) = 3*X**2 + K*(X+X**2+1) +4 N=3 DO 88 I = 1,N LET RVEXPR = EXPAND CASE(I) LET A = COEFF RVEXPR,X**2 LET B = COEFF RVEXPR,X LET C = COEFF RVEXPR,X**0 LET DISCRM = EXPAND B**2 - 4*A*C LET X1(I) = EXPAND (-B + DISCRM**(1/2))/(2*A) LET X2(I) = EXPAND (-B - DISCRM**(1/2))/(2*A) 88 CONTINUE FMCDMP STOP END
\ Forth implementation of Newton's method for finding \ roots, simplified. (c) Copyright 1994 Everett F. Carter. : z1 ( i -- ) ( f: -- z1 ) z F@ xn{ SWAP } F@ F- ; : Newton ( i -- ) ( f: e d p -- e d p ) \ calculate new D DUP z1 FROT F* FOVER F+ \ calculate new P FSWAP DUP z1 F* dif{ OVER } F@ F+ \ calculate new E FROT z1 FABS F* FOVER FABS F+ \ restore stack order FROT FROT ; : FNewt ( &xn &dif n -- ) ( f: z -- e d p) >R & dif{ &! & xn{ &! R> z F! 0.0e0 0.0e0 0.0e0 0 DO I Newton LOOP ;
PROGRAM Rad ! Simple FORTRAN program REAL P,R,C IF (.NOT. (R = 0.0)) THEN P = 3.1415926 R = 2.5 C = P * R PRINT *, "C = ", C END IF END
# Mergesort from the Berkeley FP manual { mergeSort | merge } {merge atEnd @ mergeHelper @ [[], fixLists]} # convert atomic args into sequences {fixLists &(atom -> [id] ; id)} # Merge until one or both input seqs are empty {mergeHelper (while and @ &(not @null) @ 2 (firstIsSmaller -> takeFirst; takeSecond))} # Find seq with smaller first element {firstIsSmaller < @ [1 @ 1 @ 2, 1 @ 2 @ 2]} # Take the first element of the first seq {takeFirst [apndr @ [1,1 @ 1 @ 2], [tl @ 1 @ 2, 2 @ 2]]} # Take the first element of the second seq {takeSecond [apndr @ [1,1 @ 2 @ 2], [1 @ 2, tl @ 2 @ 2]]} # Handle remaining nonempty seq {atEnd (firstIsNull -> concat @ [1,2 @ 2]; concat @ [1,1 @ 2])} {firstIsNull null @ 1 @ 2} # apply the function mergeSort : <0 3 -2 1 11 8 -22 -33>
% This is one of the example programs % included with the V1.4 distribution. MODULE EightQueens. IMPORT Lists. PREDICATE Queen : List(Integer). Queen(x) <- Safe(x) & Permutation([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8], x). PREDICATE Safe : List(Integer). DELAY Safe(x) UNTIL NONVAR(x). Safe([]). Safe([x|y]) <- NoDiagonal(x,1,y) & Safe(y). PREDICATE NoDiagonal : Integer * Integer * List(Integer). DELAY NoDiagonal(_,_,z) UNTIL NONVAR(z). NoDiagonal(_,_,[]). NoDiagonal(x,y,[z|w]) <- y ~= Abs(z - x) & NoDiagonal(x,y+1,w).
BARBERS STORAGE 20 GENERATE RVEXPO(1,1.5) QUEUE CUSTOMS ENTER BARBERS UNLINK MIN BARBERS,BARBGO,1,(UTIL)PL LINK CUSTOMS CLEAVE AVANCE .5 TERMINATE BARBGEN GENERATE ,,,20,5,1PH,1PL 20 BARBERS ASSIGN IBARB,N(BARBGEN),,PH LINK BARBERS,FIFO BARBGO SEIZE PH(IBARB) ADVANCE RVEXPO(1,30) RELEASE PH(IBARB) LEAVE BARBERS ASSIGN BUSE,FR(PH(IBARB)),,PL UNLINK CUSTOMS,CLEAVE,1 LINK BARBERS,FIFO GENERATE 60*10 TERMINATE 1 START 1
-- Stable quicksort in Haskell by Lennart Augustsson -- module QSort(sortLe, sort) where sortLe :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] sortLe le l = qsort le l [] sort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a] sort l = qsort (<=) l [] -- qsort is stable and does not concatenate. qsort le [] r = r qsort le [x] r = x:r qsort le (x:xs) r = qpart le x xs [] [] r -- qpart partitions and sorts the sublists qpart le x [] rlt rge r = -- rlt and rge are in reverse order and must be sorted with an -- anti-stable sorting rqsort le rlt (x:rqsort le rge r) qpart le x (y:ys) rlt rge r = if le x y then qpart le x ys rlt (y:rge) r else qpart le x ys (y:rlt) rge r
use lists, functions, products; type rose_tree alpha == alpha # list(rose_tree alpha); dec bf_list : rose_tree alpha -> list alpha; --- bf_list t <= [t]. iterate (concat o map snd). front_with (/= []). concat. map fst;
/* A program to count words in input files * (from examples at the ICI web site) */ static count_tokens(in) { auto count; count = 0; while (gettoken(in)) ++count; return count; } if (argc < 2) printf("%d\n", count_tokens(stdin)); else { auto f, fn, total; total = 0; forall (fn in interval(argv, 1)) { if (fn == "-") count = count_tokens(stdin); else { auto count; count = count_tokens(f = fopen(fn)); close(f); } printf("%s %d\n", fn, count); total += count; } if (argc > 2) printf("Total %d\n", total); }
# Example from New Mexico Tech Icon # tutorial by John Shipman procedure Quadratic_Roots ( a, b, c ) # Generates the real roots of ax^2+bx+c=0. local d # Discriminant d := b ^ 2 - 4.0 * a * c; # Compute the discriminant if d > 0 then { #-- Two roots suspend ( - b + sqrt ( d ) ) / ( 2.0 * a ); suspend ( - b - sqrt ( d ) ) / ( 2.0 * a ); } #-- Two roots else if d = 0 then suspend - b / ( 2.0 * a ); fail; # No more roots end procedure main () local root # Holds each root generated by the solver local count # Counts the number of roots returned count := 0; every root := Quadratic_Roots ( 1, -4, 3 ) do { #-- The braces {} group the next two statements together write ( "One solution is: x = ", root ); count +:= 1; # Count the roots generated } write ( "The number of solutions was ", count ); end
INTERCAL's main advantage over other programming languages is its simplicity. It has few capabilities, and thus there are few restrictions to be kept in mind. Since it is an exceedingly easy language to learn, one might expect it would be a good language for initiating novice programmers. Perhaps surprising, than [sic], is the fact that it would be more likely to initiate the novice into a search for another line of work.
PLEASE NOTE THIS PROGRAM PRINTS A LIST PLEASE DO NOT ASSUME THAT THE NUMBERS ARE COMPOSITE PLEASE NOTE THIS PROGRAM WAS SWIPED FROM LOUIS HOWELL DO READ OUT #2 DO .10 <- #1 PLEASE COME FROM (23) DO .11 <- !10$#1'~'#32767$#1' DO .12 <- #1 PLEASE COME FROM (16) DO .13 <- !12$#1'~'#32767$#1' DO .1 <- .11 DO .2 <- .13 DO (2030) NEXT DO (11) NEXT (15) DO (13) NEXT (13) DO .3 <- "?!4~.4'$#2"~#3 DO (14) NEXT PLEASE FORGET #1 DO .1 <- .12 DO (1020) NEXT (16) DO .12 <- .1 (12) DO .3 <- '?.2$.3'~'#0$#65535' DO .3 <- '?"'&"!2~.3'~'"?'?.3~.3'$#32768"~"#0$#65535"'"$ ".3~.3"'~#1"$#2'~#3 (14) PLEASE RESUME .3 (11) DO (12) NEXT DO FORGET #1 PLEASE READ OUT .11 DO COME FROM (15) DO .1 <- .10 DO (1020) NEXT DO .10 <- .1 (23) DO (21) NEXT (22) PLEASE RESUME "?!10~#32768'$#2"~#3 (21) DO (22) NEXT DO FORGET #1 PLEASE GIVE UP (2010) PLEASE ABSTAIN FROM (2004) (2000) PLEASE STASH .2 DO .2 <- #1 DO (2001) NEXT (2001) PLEASE FORGET #1 DO .1 <- '?.1$.2'~'#0$#65535' DO (2002) NEXT DO .2 <- !2$#0'~'#32767$#1' DO (2001) NEXT (2003) PLEASE RESUME "?!1~.2'$#1"~#3 (2002) DO (2003) NEXT PLEASE RETRIEVE .2 (2004) PLEASE RESUME #2 PLEASE DO REINSTATE (2004) PLEASE RESUME '?"!1~.1'~#1"$#2'~#6 (2020) PLEASE STASH .2 + .3 DO (1021) NEXT (2030) DO STASH .1 + .5 DO .3 <- #0 DO .5 <- '?"!2~.2'~#1"$#1'~#3 PLEASE DO (2031) NEXT DO .4 <- #1 PLEASE DO (2033) NEXT (2033) DO FORGET #1 DO .5 <- '?".2~#32768"$#2'~#3 DO (2032) NEXT DO .2 <- !2$#0'~'#32767$#1' PLEASE DO .4 <- !4$#0'~'#32767$#1' DO (2033) NEXT (2032) DO (1001) NEXT (2036) PLEASE FORGET #1 DO .5 <- '?.1$.2'~'#0$#65535' DO .5 <- '?"'&"!2~.5'~'"?'?.5~.5'$#32768"~"#0$#65535"'"$ ".5~.5"'~#1"$#2'~#3 DO (2034) NEXT DO .5 <- .3 DO (1010) NEXT PLEASE DO .1 <- .3 DO .3 <- 'V.4$.5'~'#0$#65535' DO (2035) NEXT (2034) PLEASE DO (1001) NEXT (2035) DO FORGET #1 DO .5 <- "?'.4~#1'$#2"~#3 DO (2031) NEXT DO .2 <- .2~#65534 DO .4 <- .4~#65534 PLEASE DO (2036) NEXT (2031) DO (1001) NEXT PLEASE DO .4 <- .1 PLEASE RETRIEVE .1 + .5 PLEASE RESUME #2
NB. continued fraction representation of Pi: rf=. % @ (1&|) Pi=. 1p1 [v=. <. rf ^: (i.10) Pi 3 7 15 1 292 1 1 1 2 1 (+%) /\ 5{. v 3 3.14286 3.14151 3.14159 3.14159
import java.awt.*; import java.util.*; public class Showtime extends Frame implements Runnable { Button quitBtn; Label timeLbl; Thread tthread; public Showtime() { super("Java Showtime"); setLayout(new FlowLayout()); quitBtn = new Button("Quit"); timeLbl = new Label((new Date()).toString()); add(quitBtn); add(timeLbl); pack(); show(); tthread = new Thread(this); tthread.run(); } public boolean action(Event evt, Object what) { if (evt.target == quitBtn) { tthread.stop(); System.exit(0); } return super.action(evt,what); } public void run() { while(true) { try { Thread.sleep(10000); } catch (Exception e) { } timeLbl.setText((new Date()).toString()); } } public static void main(String [] argv) { Showtime st = new Showtime(); } }
<script language=javascript> sub chkrange(elem,minval,maxval) { if (elem.value < minval || elem.value > maxval) { alert("Value of " + elem.name + " is out of range!"); } } </script> <input type=button onclick="chkrange(myform.numitem,1,10);">
{ Table data structure, adapted from an example in "Multiparadigm Data Structures in Leda" by Tim Budd, 1993 Assumes the list data structure is already defined. } class Association [X, Y : equality] of equality[Association]; var key : X; value : Y; function equals(argValue : Association[X, Y])->boolean; begin return key = argValue.key; end; end; class Table [X, Y : equality] { of equality[Association] }; var data : List[Association[X, Y]]; function add (newKey : X, newValue : Y); begin if ~ defined(data) then data := List[Association[X, Y]](); data.add(Association[X, Y](newKey, newValue)); end; function onEach (theFun : function(X, Y)); begin if defined(data) then data.onEach(function (item : Association[X, Y]); begin theFun(item.key, item.value); end); end; function items (byRef key : X, byRef value : Y)->relation; var element : Association[X, Y]; begin return defined(data) & data.items(element) & unify[X](key, element.key) & unify[Y](value, element.value); end; function includesKey (key : X)->boolean; var value : Y; begin if items(key, value) then return true; return false; end; function at (key : X)->Y; var value : Y; begin if items(key, value) then return value; return NIL; end; function atPut (key : X, value : Y); var element : Association[X, Y]; begin if defined(data) & data.items(element) & element.key = key then element.value := value else add(key, value); end; end;
global(sieve)? global(limit)? main :- write("N=?"), read_token(limit & int), next_prime(2), nl. remove_multiples(P,M) :- cond(M < limit, (sieve.M <-multiple_of(P),remove_multiples(P,M+P)) ). next_prime(P) :- P < limit, !, SP=sieve.P, ( SP=prime(P), !, write(P,' '), remove_multiples(P,2*P) ; succeed ), next_prime(P+1). next_prime(P).
# A simple program to sum up some numbers # presented on the command line, from # Bob Pike's forthcoming book on Limbo. implement Sum; include "sys.m"; sys: Sys; include "draw.m"; Sum: module { init: fn(context: ref Draw->Context, argl: list of string); }; init(context: ref Draw->Context, argl: list of string) { sys = load Sys Sys->PATH; argl = tl argl; # ignore command name if(len argl == 0){ sys->print("usage: sum numbers....\n"); return; } sum := 0.0; while(argl != nil){ arg := hd argl; sys->print("%s", arg); sum += real arg; argl = tl argl; if(argl != nil) sys->print(" + "); } sys->print(" = %g\n", sum); }
;; Simple factorial routine ;; (until I get a better example written) (defun fact1 (num) (cond ((not (integerp num)) nil) ((<= num 1) 1) (t (* num (fact1 (- num 1))))) )
; Recursive procedure to line, fractalized to DrawFractalLine :level :length ifelse :level < 1 [ fd :length] [ DrawFractalLine (sum -1 :level) (quotient :length 3.00) left 60 DrawFractalLine (sum -1 :level) (quotient :length 3.00) right 120 DrawFractalLine (sum -1 :level) (quotient :length 3.00) left 60 DrawFractalLine (sum -1 :level) (quotient :length 3.00) ] end ; procedure to clear screen and position turtle to SetupTurtle cs setpos [-160 -10] right 60 clean end ; setup turtle then draw Koch's snowflake(5) SetupTurtle setpensize [2 2] repeat 3 [DrawFractalLine 5 330 right 120]
' Find agents owned by the current user ' and remove them (Adapted from examples at ' www.lotus.com) Dim session As New NotesSession Dim db As NotesDatabase Dim agentArray(1 To 10) As NotesAgent Dim count as Integer Dim answer as string count = 0 Set db = session.CurrentDatabase Forall a In db.Agents If ( a.Owner = session.UserName ) Then Set agentArray(count) = a count = count + 1 If (count > 10) Then Exit Forall End If End If End Forall answer = Inputbox$( "You have " & count & " agents. Delete them?" ) If (answer = "y") Or (answer = "yes") Then Forall a in agentArray Call a.Remove End Foreall End If
-- Simple Lua program that implements the -- bisection method for solving non-linear equations function bisect(f,a,b,fa,fb) write(n," a=",a," fa=",fa," b=",b," fb=",fb,"\n") local c=(a+b)/2 if abs(a-b) < delta then return c end n=n+1 local fc=f(c) if fa*fc < 0 then return bisect(f,a,c,fa,fc) else return bisect(f,c,b,fc,fb) end end -- find root of f in the inverval [a,b]. -- bisection requires that f(a)*f(b) < 0 function solve(f,a,b) delta=1e-6 -- tolerance n=0 local z=bisect(f,a,b,f(a),f(b)) write(format("after %d steps, root is %.10g\n",n,z)) end -- test the bisection code with -- a function: x^3 - x - 1 function f(x) return x*x*x - x - 1 end solve(f,1,2)
h where h = 1 fby merge(merge(2 * h, 3 * h), 5 * h); merge(x,y) = if xx <= yy then xx else yy fi where xx = x upon xx <= yy; yy = y upon yy <= xx; end; end;
produce := procedure(); seq := ["S"]; rhs := ["(", "S", ")", "S"]; i := 1; repeat if Random(1, 10) gt 7 then Insert(~seq, i, i, rhs); else Remove(~seq, i); end if; print #seq gt 0 select &*seq else "eps"; i := Position(seq, "S"); until i eq 0; print "Length:", #seq; end procedure
(* RandomWalk example from Maeder, 1990 *) RandomWalk::usage = "RandomWalk[n] plots a random walk of length n" RandomWalk[n_Integer] := Block[{loc = {0.0, 0.0}, dir, points= Table[0, {n+1}], range = N[{0, 2 Pi}]}, points[[1]] = loc; Do[ dir = Random[Real, range]; loc += {Cos[dir], Sin[dir]}; points[[i]] = loc, {i, 2, n+1}]; Show[ Graphics[{Point[{0,0}], Line[points]}], Framed -> True, AspectRation -> Automatic] ]
/* the Voting example from the Mawl 2.1 Tutorial */ typedef { string name, int nVotes } vote; static [ vote ] tally = [ ]; static int total = 0; session vote { auto form { [ vote ] tally, int total, string castvote } showvote; showvote.put( { tally, total, "Vote" } ); } subsession void AddVote(string name) { ++total; auto int i; for (i = 0; i < tally.length(); ++i) if (tally[i].name == name) { tally[i].nVotes++; return; } tally.append( { name, 1 } ); } session Vote { auto form void -> { string name } getName; AddVote( getName.put().name ); }
% An example of finding primes using a sieve % (adapted from a logic programming benchmark in mercury) :- interface. :- import_module list, int. :- implementation. :- pred primes(int, list(int)). :- mode primes(in, out) is det. :- pred integers(int, int, list(int)). :- mode integers(in, in, out) is det. :- pred sift(list(int), list(int)). :- mode sift(in, out) is det. :- pred remove(int, list(int), list(int)). :- mode remove(in, in, out) is det. primes(Limit, Ps) :- integers(2, Limit, Is), sift(Is, Ps). integers(Low, High, Result) :- ( Low =< High -> M is Low + 1, Result = [Low | Rest], integers(M, High, Rest) ; Result = [] ). sift([], []). sift([I | Is], [I | Ps]) :- remove(I, Is, New), sift(New, Ps). remove(_P, [], []). remove(P, [I | Is], Result) :- M is I mod P, ( M = 0 -> Result = Nis, remove(P, Is, Nis) ; Result = [I | Nis], remove(P, Is, Nis) ).
|| Sorting with the comparison function as a parameter || (adapted from code example by Simon Thompson) sortG :: (* -> * -> bool) -> [*] -> [*] sortG comp (a:x) = sortG comp smaller ++ [a] ++ sortG comp larger where smaller = [ b | b<-x ; comp b a ] larger = [ b | b<-x ; comp a b ] || Example Use CompInt :: (* -> * -> bool) CompInt m n = (m < n) SortG CompInt [3,5,0,12,8,43,7]
fun sort nil = nil : int list | sort(h::t) = let fun insert(i,nil) = [i] | insert(i,h::t) = if i>h then i::h::t else h::insert(i,t) in insert(h, sort t) end; fun mean l = let fun sl(nil ,sum,len) = sum div len | sl(h::t,sum,len) = sl(t,sum+h,len+h) in sl(l,0,0) end; mean(sort [2,3,5,7,11,13] @ [6,14,28] )
MODULE Push EXPORTS Main; IMPORT Trestle, VBT, TextVBT, RigidVBT, ButtonVBT, BorderedVBT, HVSplit, Axis; action of button when pushed PROCEDURE QuitAction (self: ButtonVBT.T; READONLY cd: VBT.MouseRec) = BEGIN Trestle.Delete(main); (* NB. "main" is visible here. *) END QuitAction; CONST horz = 30.0; (* horizontal size "hello" window *) vert = 10.0; (* vertical size of "hello" window *) VAR hello := RigidVBT.FromHV(TextVBT.New("Hello World"), horz, vert); quit := ButtonVBT.New(ch := TextVBT.New("Quit"), action := QuitAction); main := HVSplit.Cons(Axis.T.Ver, hello, BorderedVBT.New(quit)); BEGIN Trestle.Install(main); Trestle.AwaitDelete(main); END Push.
MODULE AlphaRandom; (* Randomize the alphabet, and show how to use the module Shuffle *) (* John Andrea, 1992 *) FROM InOut IMPORT WriteLn, WriteString; FROM Shuffle IMPORT Deck, Create, Next, Reset; VAR d :Deck; i, j, min, max, n :CARDINAL; BEGIN min := ORD( 'a' ); max := ORD( 'z' ); n := max - min + 1; Create( d, min, max ); FOR i := 1 TO 10 DO WriteString( 'random alphabet = ' ); FOR j := 1 TO n DO WriteString( CHR( Next( d ) ) ); END; WriteLn; Reset( d ); END; END AlphaRandom.
; EXAMPLE FROM UC DAVIS LEXICON ;PROGRAM TO CREATE SORTED DICTIONARY READ !,"ENTER NEXT TERM (NULL TO QUIT): ",TERM GOTO:TERM="" LIST READ !,"ENTER ONE LINE DEFINITION: ",DEF SET ^WORD(TERM)=DEF GOTO LEXICON LIST READ !,"WOULD YOU LIKE TERMS LISTED (Y/N)?",YESNO QUIT:YESNO'?1"Y".E SET X="" ;TO GO TO PRINTER ADD 'OPEN 1 USE 1' FOR I=1:1 SET Y=$ORDER(^WORD(X)),X=Y QUIT:X="" WRITE !,Y,?15,^WORD(Y)
% Fits a line to a set of of points % % using a simple regression algorithm, % % return line and goodness of fit. % % (from code examples with NESL 3.1) % function line_fit(x, y) = let n = float(#x); xa = sum(x)/n; ya = sum(y)/n; Stt = sum({(x - xa)^2: x}); b = sum({(x - xa)*y: x; y})/Stt; a = ya - xa*b; chi2 = sum({(y-a-b*x)^2: x; y}); siga = sqrt((1.0/n + xa^2/Stt)*chi2/n); sigb = sqrt((1.0/Stt)*chi2/n) in (a, b, siga, sigb) $
# A routine to look for HTML tags in a # file (from the AboutNial page at NIAL Systems) findtagtext IS OPERATION Text { Hdposns := `< findall Text; Tlposns := `> findall Text; Lengths := Tlposns - Hdposns + 1; Tags := Hdposns EACHBOTH + EACH tell Lengths EACHLEFT choose Text; Hdposns Tags } test is op fnm { findtagtext readfield fnm 0 (filelength fnm) } Posns Tags := test "intro.htm;
(* Oberon module to read in numbers *) (* average them. *) MODULE Stats; IMPORT Texts, Oberon; TYPE Stat* = POINTER TO StatRec; StatRec *= RECORD count: LONGINT; total: REAL; END; PROCEDURE (s: Stat) Add* (REAL val); VAR this: Stat; BEGIN this := s; this.total := this.total + val; this.count := this.count + 1; END Add; PROCEDURE (s: Stat) Reset*; VAR this: Stat; BEGIN this := s; this.total := 0.0; this.count := 0; END Reset; PROCEDURE (s: Stat) IsValid*: BOOLEAN; VAR this: Stat; BEGIN this := s; RETURN (this.count > 0); END Reset; PROCEDURE (s: Stat) Average*: REAL; VAR this: Stat; BEGIN this := s; IF this.IsValid^() THEN RETURN 0.0 ELSE RETURN (this.total / this.count) END Average; END Stats;
/* still need an example here */
Server side:
(* A server for computing factorials. *) module FactServer; let fact = net_export("fact","", { m => meth(s,n) if n is 0 then 1 else n * s.m(n-1) end end });
Client side:
module FactClient; let fact = net_import("fact",""); fact.m(13);
-- Pipelined parallel sort in occam --(from Pountain and May, A Tutorial -- Introduction to Occam Programming) VAL numbers IS 100 : [numbers + 1] CHAN OF INT pipe: PAR PAR i = 0 FOR numbers input IS pipe[i] : output IS pipe[i+1] : INT highest : SEQ input ? highest SEQ j = 0 FOR numbers - 1 INT next: SEQ input ? next IF next <= highest output ! highest next > highest SEQ output ! highest highest := next SEQ i = 0 FOR numbers -- get unsorted INT unsortednumber : -- numbers SEQ input ? unsortednumber pipe[0] ! unsortednumber SEQ i = 0 FOR numbers -- dump sorted INT sortednumber : -- numbers SEQ pipe[numbers] ? sortednumber output ! sortednumber
; An OPS5 program that implements a model of ; rock climbers, from exercise solutions of ; "Expert Systems Programming in OPS5" (literalize rock-climber age ; young or old style ; timid or bold ) (p old-not-bold (rock-climber ^age old ^style <> bold) ---> (write (crlf) that is plausible)) (p bold-not-old (rock-climber ^age <> old ^style bold) ---> (write (crlf) that is quite possible)) (p error::old-and-bold (rock-climber ^age old ^style bold) ---> (write (crlf) There are no old, bold rock climbers)) (make rock-climber ^age young ^style bold)
# An example object from the paper # "Experiences with the Orca Programming Language" # by Bal and Wilson OBJECT IMPLEMENTATION buffer; CONST MAXSIZE = 10; # Maximum size of the buffer # Local state of the object: buf:ARRAY[integer 0..MAXSIZE-1] OF integer; # the buffer itself in, out: integer; # index of next element to put/get size: integer; # current size OPERATION put(x: integer); BEGIN GUARD size ! MAXSIZE DO # blocks until there is room buf[in] := x; # store element in := (in + 1) % MAXSIZE; # bump input index size +:= 1; # increment size OD; END; OPERATION get(x: OUT integer); BEGIN GUARD size ? 0 DO # blocks while buffer is empty x := buf[out]; # retrieve element out := (out + 1) % MAXSIZE; # bump output index size -:= 1; # decrement size OD; END; END;
local proc {AndThen BP1 BP2 ?B} case {BP1} then case {BP2} then B = true else B = false end else B = false end end in proc {BinaryTree T ?B} case T of nil then B = true [] tree(K V T1 T2) then {AndThen proc {$ B1}{BinaryTree T1 B1} end proc {$ B2}{BinaryTree T2 B2} end B} else B = false end end end
{ Sort program adapted from "Intermediate Pascal" } { by Joe Dorward. Illustrates arrays and types. } program sort_array(input,output); const max = 9; type integer_array = array[1..max] of integer; var I, J, K, swaps, temp : integer; test_array : integer_array; begin test_array[1] := 4; test_array[2] := 7; test_array[3] := 9; test_array[4] := 3; test_array[5] := 15; test_array[6] := 2; test_array[7] := 08; test_array[8] := 05; test_array[9] := 12; writeln(' *** Initial Array ***'); writeln(' --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- '); for I := 1 to (max-1) do write('|',test_array[I]:2,' '); writeln('|',test_array[max]:2,' |'); for I := 1 to max do for J := (I 1) to max do { set J to start one ahead of I } if test_array[J] < test_array[I] then begin swaps := swaps 1; temp := test_array[J]; test_array[J] := test_array[I]; test_array[I] := temp; writeln; writeln('* * Condition After ',swaps:1,' swaps * *'); writeln(' --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- '); for K := 1 to (max-1) do write('|',test_array[K]:2,' '); write('|',test_array[max]:2,' |'); end; writeln(' * Sorting Complete *'); end.
#!/usr/bin/perl # Simple program to extract column 3 from a file # and total up the numbers. $total = 0; sub sumcolumn { my $col = shift; my $lin = shift; my @fields; if ($lin) { @fields = split(/:/,$lin); $total = $fields[2]; } } while (<>) { sumcolumn(3,$_); } print "Total of column 3 is $total\n";
<? mysql_connect("localhost","","") or die("Unable to connect to SQL server"); @mysql_select_db("php3") or die("Unable to select database"); $result = mysql_query("select * from customerTable limit 100"); ?> <table border="1"> <tr> <? while ($field=mysql_fetch_field($result)) { echo "<th>"; echo "$field->name"; echo "</th>"; } echo "</tr>"; while ($row = mysql_fetch_row($result)) { echo "<tr>"; for ($i=0; $i<mysql_num_fields($result); $i ) { echo "<td>"; echo "$row[$i]"; echo "</td>"; } echo "</tr>\n"; } echo "</table>";
The example below implements the Sieve of Erastosthenes (from the examples shipped with Pict 4.1).
now (reset checks) def interval (min:Int max:Int):(List Int) = if (>> min max) then nil else (cons min (interval (inc min) max)) def sieve (max:Int):(List Int) = ( def again (l:(List Int)):(List Int) = if (null l) then nil else (val n = (car l) if (>> (* n n) max) then l else (cons n (again (list.filter #Int l \(x) = (<> (mod x n) 0))))) (again (interval 2 max)) ) def prPrime (idx:Int x:Int):[] = if (== (mod idx 10) 9) then ((int.pr x); (nl)) else ((int.pr x); (pr " ")) (list.itApply (sieve 4000) prPrime);
// This program implements a fifo that can be used to send // data between two threads. (From the Pike 0.6 manual, sec 10) inherit Thread.Condition : r_cond; inherit Thread.Condition: w_cond; inherit Thread.Mutex: lock; mixed *buffer = allocate(128); int r_ptr, w_ptr; int query_messages() { return w_ptr - r_ptr; } // This function reads one mixed value from the fifo. // If no values are available it blocks until a write has been done. mixed read() { mixed tmp; object key=lock::lock(); while(!query_messages()) r_cond::wait(key); tmp=buffer[r_ptr % sizeof(buffer)]; w_cond::signal(); return tmp; } // This function pushes one mixed value on the fifo. // If the fifo is full it blocks until a value has been read. void write(mixed v) { object key=lock::lock(); while(query_messages() == sizeof(buffer)) w_cond::wait(key); buffer[w_ptr % sizeof(buffer)]=v; r_cond::signal(); }
R : An example for converting a number to english *LOOP T :ENTER A NUMBER, OR ZERO TO QUIT. C :$NUM= A :#Z E(Z=0) : U :*WRITNUM T :$NUM : J :*LOOP *WRITNUM U(Z<10) :*UNITS E(Z<10) : J(Z>999):*THOU J(Z>99) :*HUND J(Z>19) :*TWENTY C(Z=10) :$NUM=$NUM TEN C(Z=11) :$NUM=$NUM ELEVEN C(Z=12) :$NUM=$NUM TWELVE C(Z=13) :$NUM=$NUM THIRTEEN C(Z=14) :$NUM=$NUM FOURTEEN C(Z=15) :$NUM=$NUM FIFTEEN C(Z=16) :$NUM=$NUM SIXTEEN C(Z=17) :$NUM=$NUM SEVENTEEN C(Z=18) :$NUM=$NUM EIGHTEEN C(Z=19) :$NUM=$NUM NINETEEN E: *UNITS C(Z=1) :$NUM=$NUM ONE C(Z=2) :$NUM=$NUM TWO C(Z=3) :$NUM=$NUM THREE C(Z=4) :$NUM=$NUM FOUR C(Z=5) :$NUM=$NUM FIVE C(Z=6) :$NUM=$NUM SIX C(Z=7) :$NUM=$NUM SEVEN C(Z=8) :$NUM=$NUM EIGHT C(Z=9) :$NUM=$NUM NINE E: *TWENTY C:Y=Z%10 C:Z=Z-Y C(Z=20) :$NUM=$NUM TWENTY C(Z=30) :$NUM=$NUM THIRTY C(Z=40) :$NUM=$NUM FORTY C(Z=50) :$NUM=$NUM FIFTY C(Z=60) :$NUM=$NUM SIXTY C(Z=70) :$NUM=$NUM SEVENTY C(Z=80) :$NUM=$NUM EIGHTY C(Z=90) :$NUM=$NUM NINETY C:Z=Y E(Z=0) : J:*WRITNUM *HUND C :Y=Z%100 C :Z=(Z-Y)/100 U :*UNITS C :$NUM=$NUM HUNDRED C :Z=Y E(Z=0) : J :*WRITNUM *THOU C :X=Z%1000 C :Z=(Z-X)/1000 U :*WRITNUM C :$NUM=$NUM THOUSAND C :Z=X E(Z=0) : J :*HUND
FINDSTRINGS: PROCEDURE OPTIONS(MAIN) /* READ A STRING, THEN PRINT EVERY */ /* SUBSEQUENT LINE WITH A MATCH */ DECLARE PAT VARYING CHARACTER(100), LINEBUF VARYING CHARACTER(100), (LINENO, NDFILE, IX) FIXED BINARY; NDFILE = 0; ON ENDFILE(SYSIN) NDFILE=1; GET EDIT(PAT) (A); LINENO = 1; DO WHILE (NDFILE=0); GET EDIT(LINEBUF) (A); IF LENGTH(LINEBUF) > 0 THEN DO; IX = INDEX(LINEBUF, PAT); IF IX > 0 THEN DO; PUT SKIP EDIT (LINENO,LINEBUF)(F(2),A) END; END; LINENO = LINENO 1; END; END FINDSTRINGS;
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 % Draw a string at an angle at a point /printat { % str x y angle => - gsave 4 1 roll translate exch rotate 0 0 moveto show grestore } def % find the center of the page /pagecenter { % - => cx cy clippath pathbbox 4 1 roll exch sub 2. div 3 1 roll sub 2. div } def % set up font and constants /Times-Bold findfont 36 scalefont setfont pagecenter /cy exch def /cx exch def /steps 9 def /basegray 0.75 def /incrgray basegray steps div def /baseangle 360 steps div def /incrangle 360 steps div def % draw a string as a rosette steps { basegray setgray (PostScript) cx cy baseangle printat /basegray basegray incrgray sub def /baseangle baseangle incrangle add def } repeat % done with this page showpage
% Quicksort in Prolog, by Keesey adapted from Bratko gtq(X,Y) :- X @> Y. quicksort( [],[] ). quicksort( [X | Tail], Sorted) :- split( X, Tail, Small, Big), quicksort( Small, SortedSmall), quicksort( Big, SortedBig), conc( SortedSmall, [X | SortedBig], Sorted). split( _, [], [], []). split( X,[Y | Tail], [Y | Small], Big) :- gtq( X, Y),!, split( X, Tail, Small, Big). split( X, [Y | Tail], Small, [Y | Big] ) :- split( X, Tail, Small, Big). conc([],L,L). conc( [X | L1], L2, [X | L3]) :- conc( L1, L2, L3).
# standard binary search tree from # a tree data structure package by Dan Stubbs # class binary_tree: def __init__ (self): self.tree = None def insert (self, key): if self.tree: self._insert (self.tree, key) else: self.tree = node(key) def _insert (self, tree, key): if key < tree.key: if tree.left: self._insert (tree.left, key) else: tree.left = node(key) else: if tree.right: self._insert (tree.right, key) else: tree.right = node(key)
'* Locates Find$ in sorted array Array$ () and returns element number or -1 * '* by Matt Usner. FUNCTION BinarySearch% (Array$(), Find$) BinarySearch% = -1 ' no matching element yet Min = LBOUND(Array$) ' start at first element Max = UBOUND(Array$) ' consider through last DO Try = (Max + Min) \ 2 ' start testing in middle IF Array$(Try) = Find$ THEN BinarySearch% = Try ' return matching element EXIT DO END IF IF Array$(Try) > Find$ THEN ' too high, cut in half Max = Try - 1 ELSE Min = Try + 1 ' too low, cut other way END IF LOOP WHILE Max >= Min END FUNCTION
// code for items.qc to make a backpack // bob in the water, by NiKoDeMoS, 1997. void() Backpackfloat = { local float pc; pc = pointcontents(self.origin); if (pc == CONTENTWATER) self.velocity_z = (cvar("sv_gravity") + 100) * 0.1; self.nextthink = time + 0.1; };
REBOL [ Title: "99 Bottles of Beer on the Wall in REBOL" Author: Neal Ziring Email: ziring@home.com Date: 17-Oct-1998 File: %99beer.r Version: #REBOL-1-0-1 Purpose: "Print the famous iterative beer song" Comment: { This is an example of a program in REBOL that prints the famous 99 bottles of beer on the wall song. For more information on REBOL go to the web site www.rebol.com. This program is deliberately over-complicated to hot-dog some fancy features of REBOL. } ] song: [ Verse [ [if num > 0 [num] else ["No more"] ] " " [if num == 1 ["bottle"] else ["bottles"] ] " of beer on the wall," 1 [if num > 0 [num] else ["No more"] ] " " [if num == 1 ["bottle"] else ["bottles"] ] " of beer!" 1 "Take one down, pass it around!" 1 [if num - 1 > 0 [num - 1] else ["No more"] ] " " [if num - 1 == 1 ["bottle"] else ["bottles"] ] " of beer on the wall." 2 ] Finale [ "Time to buy more beer!" 1 ] ] processItem: func [item num] [ if integer? item [loop item [prin newline] ] if string? item [prin item] if block? item [ftmp: func [num] item prin ftmp num ] exit ] dosong: func [start] [ bottlesleft: start until [ foreach item song/Verse [processItem item bottlesleft] bottlesleft: bottlesleft - 1 (bottlesleft == 0) ] foreach item song/Finale [processItem item 0] return none ] dosong 99
PROCEDURE EUCLID(A,B,X); BEGIN SCALAR R,Q,AA,BB,SA,SB,SR,D; CLEAR FIRST,SECOND; AA := A; BB := B; SA := FIRST; SB := SECOND; WHILE (R := POLYREM(AA,BB,X)) NEQ 0 DO <<ON GCD; Q := (AA - R) / BB; OFF GCD; SR := SA - Q * SB; D := DEN Q; SA := SB * D; SB := SR * D; AA := BB * D; BB := R * D>>; RETURN SB END;
/* Subroutine example from Ian Collier's tutorial, */ /* stand-in until I get a more extensive example. */ /* Calculate factorial x, that is, 1*2*3* ... *x */ parse pull x . say x"!="factorial(x) exit factorial: /* calculate the factorial of the argument */ procedure parse arg p if p<3 then return p else return factorial(p-1) * p
* A simple RPG subprocedure to determine * an amount to pay a worker. From IBM * book SC09-2074-01 "RPG/400 Programmer's Guide" P CalcPay B D CalcPay PI 8P 2 D Rate 5P 2 VALUE D Hours 10U 0 VALUE D Bonus 5P 2 VALUE D Overtime S 5P 2 INZ(0) * Determine any overtime hours to be paid. C IF Hours > 40 C EVAL Overtime = (Hours - 40) * Rate * 1.5 C EVAL Hours = 40 C ENDIF * Calculate the total pay and return it to the caller C RETURN Rate * Hours Bonus Overtime P CalcPay E
# sieve of Eratosthenes max = Integer(ARGV.shift || 100) sieve = [] for i in 2 .. max sieve[i] = i end for i in 2 .. Math.sqrt(max) next unless sieve[i] (i*i).step(max, i) do |j| sieve[j] = nil end end puts sieve.compact.join ", "
# Some S code to plot concentric convex hulls # around some data, from the documentation for # the chull function. drawhull <- function(xvec, yvec, ltype) { polygon(xvec, yvec, density=0, lty=ltype) } p <- chull(corn.rain, corn.yield, peel=T) which <- rep(seq(p$count), p$count) s <- split(p$hull, which) plot(corn.rain, corn.yield, pch="X") for(i in seq(s)) { j <- s[[i]] if (length(j) > 2) drawhull(corn.rain[j], corn.yield[j], i) }
-- Still working on a good code example here... -- A simple class from the Sather Essential manual class POINT is attr x,y:INT; create(x,y:INT):POINT is res:POINT := new; res.x := x; res.y := y; return res; end; add(xval,yval:INT):POINT is xsum:INT := x xval; ysum:INT := y yval; res:POINT := #POINT(xsum, ysum); return res; end; offset_by(val:INT):POINT is return add(val,val); end; end;
;;; takes two sorted lists merges them (define (merge! a b less?) (define (loop r a b) (if (less? (car b) (car a)) (begin (set-cdr! r b) (if (null? (cdr b)) (set-cdr! b a) (loop b a (cdr b)) )) ;; (car a) <= (car b) (begin (set-cdr! r a) (if (null? (cdr a)) (set-cdr! a b) (loop a (cdr a) b)) )) ) (cond ((null? a) b) ((null? b) a) ((less? (car b) (car a)) (if (null? (cdr b)) (set-cdr! b a) (loop b a (cdr b))) b) (else ; (car a) <= (car b) (if (null? (cdr a)) (set-cdr! a b) (loop a (cdr a) b)) a)))
$ A SETL program to do the sieve of $ Erastothenes (probably badly, but its my first $ SETL program) program sieve; read(mx); primes := {}; (for x in [3..mx] | odd x) primes with:= x; end; (for x in [3..ceil(mx / 2)] | odd x) primes := sieve1(x, primes); end; print(primes); proc sieve1(rd n, rd pset); (for x in pset | n < x and x mod n = 0) pset less:= x; end; return pset; end proc sieve1; end program sieve;
#!/bin/sh # Simple shell script to count files of size # greater than 1k if [ -z "$1" ] then pat="*" else pat="$1" fi cnt=0 for fname in $pat do if [ -r $fname -a ! -d $fname ] then size=`cat $fname | wc -c` if [ $size -gt 1024 ] then echo $fname ' ' $size cnt=`expr $cnt 1` fi fi done echo "${pat}: Files bigger than 1K: $cnt" exit
Preamble '' A simple telephone system model - CACI Products Company '' files: TELPHN1.SRC Normally mode is integer Processes include GENERATOR Every INCOMING.CALL has a CALL.ID Define NUMBER.BUSY and LOST.CALLS as integer variables End ''Preamble Main Activate a GENERATOR now Start simulation Print 1 line with LOST.CALLS thus 15 phone calls were made and ** were lost due to busy lines End ''Main Process GENERATOR For I = 1 to 15 do Activate a INCOMING.CALL now Let CALL.ID(INCOMING.CALL) = I Wait uniform.f (2.0, 6.0, 1) minutes Loop End ''GENERATOR Process INCOMING.CALL If NUMBER.BUSY < 2 Add 1 to NUMBER.BUSY Wait uniform.f(6.0, 10.0, 2) minutes Subtract 1 from NUMBER.BUSY Else Add 1 to LOST.CALLS Endif End ''INCOMING.CALL
Class Line(a,b,c); real a,b,c; begin boolean procedure parallelto(l); ref(Line) l; if l =/= none then parallelto := abs(a*l.b - b* l.a) < 0.00001; ref(Point) procedure meets(l); ref(Line) l; begin real t; if l =/= none and ~parallelto(l) then begin t := 1/(l.a * b - l.b * a); *** complicated expressions omitted below *** meets :- new Point(..., ...); end; end; ***meets*** real d; d := sqrt(a**2 b**2); if d = 0.0 then error else begin d := 1/d; a := a * d; b := b * d; c := c * d; end; end *** Line***
// an example from the Sina/st 3.1 distribution main comment ' Bring a salute to our globe'; temps hello: HelloWorld; begin hello.show end // main #Category 'Sina-Hello world'; class HelloWorld interface methods show returns nil; inputfilters disp: Dispatch = {inner.*}; end; // interface HelloWorld class HelloWorld implementation methods show begin self.printLine('Hello, world!'); return end; // show end; // implementation HelloWorld
% A simple example of using SISAL arrays, % adapted from various sample exercises in the % SISAL tutorial by John Feo. define main type Matrix = array [ array [ real ] ] % generate a square matrix where element [n,m] % is set to n m function gensquare(siz : integer returns Matrix ) for i in 1,siz cross j in 1,siz returns array of real(i) real(j) end for end function % perform one step of a relaxation, average each % element with its eight nearest neighbors function relax ( a : Matrix returns Matrix ) for row in a at i cross elt in row at j avg := (elt a[i, j-1] a[i, j 1] a[i 1, j-1] a[i 1, j] a[i 1, j 1] a[i-1, j-1] a[i-1, j] a[i-1, j 1]) / 9.0 returns array of avg end for end function % test the generator and relax function function main(returns Matrix) let a1 := gensquare(5) in a1 end let end function
GEN, PEGDEN, SERIAL WORK AREAS QUEUE MODEL, 7/14/77, 1; LIMITS,2,1,50; NETWORK; CREATE, EXPON(.4), , 1; QUEUE(1), 0, 4, BALK(SUB); ACT/1,EXPON(0.25); QUEUE(2), 0, 2, BLOCK; ACT/2,EXPON(0.50); COLCT, INT(1), TIME IN SYSTEM, 20/0/.25 TERM; SUB COLCT,BET,TIME BETWEEN BALKS; TERM; INIT,0,300; FIN;
' Smalltalk class to constraint a 2D point to a fixed grid ' (from Horan & Hopkins, Smalltalk: An Introduction...) Point subclass: #GriddedPoint instanceVariableNames: '' classVariableNames: '' poolDictionaries: '' category: 'Exercise11.5'! !GriddedPoint methodsFor: 'accessing'! x: xInteger "Set the x coordinate gridded to 10 (using rounding, alternatively I could use truncating)." super x: (xInteger roundTo: 10)! y: yInteger "Set the y coordinate gridded to 10 (using rounding, alternatively I could use truncating)." super y: (yInteger roundTo: 10)! ! !GriddedPoint methodsFor: 'private'! setX: xPoint setY: yPoint "Initialize the instance variables rounding to 10." super setX: (xPoint roundTo: 10) setY: (yPoint roundTo: 10)! !
* Find biggest words and numbers in a test string * (from Griswold,Poage,& Polonsky, 1971) BIGP = (*P $ TRY *GT(SIZE(TRY,SIZE(BIG))) $ BIG FAIL STR = 'IN 1964 NFL ATTENDANCE JUMPED TO 4,807884; ' 'AN INCREASE OF 401,810.' P = SPAN('0123456789,') BIG = STR BIGP OUTPUT = 'LONGEST NUMBER IS ' BIG P = SPAN('ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ') BIG = STR BIGP OUTPUT = 'LONGEST WORD IS ' BIG END
# Small Tcl sorting program, after Welch, 1997. proc NameCompare {a, b} { set $asurname = [lindex $a end] set $bsurname = [lindex $b end] set ret [string compare $asurname $bsurname] if { $ret == 0 } { $ret = [string compare $a $b] } return $ret } set namelist {} set line {} while { [gets stdin line] != 0 } { lappend namelist $line } set namelist [lsort -command NameCompare $namelist] set lineno 1 foreach line $namelist { puts stdout "$lineno $line" set lineno [expr $lineno 1] }
! DISPLAY CURRENT LINE'S ASCII CODES, 20 PER DISPLAY-LINE.! ! D F KOENIG, 1989-11-24. ! @^U.L[^[^A Line length = ^A^[ MN0U.0^[QN<Q.0A:=^[^A ^A^[((%.0/10)*10)-Q.0"E^[((Q.0/20)*20)-Q.0"E^[^A ^A^[ ^[|^[^A ^A^[ ^['^['^[>^[^A ^A^[[
code Segment; \ define code Segment. Org 0100h; \ all .COM programs start at 0100h. data Segment; \ define data Segment. ' First2 ='1', =13, =10, \ Initial 2 primes message text... ='2', =13, =10, =24h; \ followed by a $ for DOS. ' Primes =" primes.", \ declare message text... crlf =13, =10, =24h; \ followed by CR, LF and $ for DOS. EOP Label Byte; \ define End Of Program. data EndS; \ close data segment, goes after code. \ \ Computes and displays all of the primes between 0 and 65536 using the \ Eratosthenes' Sieve method. Note that the first 2 primes (1 and 2) \ are handled as a special case. \ \ dx = O(First2); ah = 9; !21h; \* print first 2 primes using DOS. sp = O(EOP 512); \ set up 256 word stack at end of prog. bx = sp 15 > 4; \ bx = number of paragraphs we use. es = ds = ax = cs bx; \ setup ds,es to free space past stack. cx = 32768; ax = (-1); &di; \ cx = number, ax = value, di = offset. ; <> ** =; \ auto-inc, clear full 64K flags array. bx = 2; &si; &ch; \ count = 2 (for 1 & 2), i = 0, ch = 0. { \ do... cl = [si]; ?<> \ if flags[i] is non-zero... { \ then... dx = si si 3; <<1; \ prime = i * 2 3, break if done... ax = dx; =.PrintNum; \* print prime using PrintNum. ax = H(14) L(13); !10h; \* print CR using BIOS. ax = H(14) L(10); !10h; \* print LF using BIOS. di = si dx; >> \ k = i prime, if & while k << limit, { [di] = ch; di dx; }>>; \ do flags[k] = 0, k = k prime. bx ; \ count = count 1; }; \ endif flags[i] is non-zero. si ; \ i = i 1. }.; \ loop forever-- break gets us out. es = ds = ax = cs; \ restore ds and es. ax = bx; =.PrintNum; \ print ax in decimal to screen. dx = O(Primes); ah = 9; !21h; \ print " primes." using DOS. !20h; \ return to DOS.
% Code to test whether a given year is % a leap-year. From % S. Bechtolsheim's "TeX in Practice" volume 3. \InputD{imodn.tip} \newif\if@LeapYear \def\LeapYearConditional #1{% TT\fi {% \count0 = #1\relax \IModN{\count0}{4}{\count1}% \ifnum\count1 = 0 \global\@LeapYeartrue \IModN{\count0}{100}{\count2}% \IModN{\count0}{400}{\count3}% \ifnum\count2 = 0 \global\@LeapYearfalse \fi \ifnum\count3 = 0 \global\@LeapYeartrue \fi \else \global\@LeapYearfalse \fi }% \if@LeapYear }
% Roll a die until you get 6. (This is a comment) var die : int loop randint (die, 1, 6) exit when die = 6 put "This roll is ", die end loop put "Stopping with roll of 6"
** An example numerical integration program ** from the UFO1.0 Tutorial by J. Sargeant. polyf (x : Float) : Float is 2*x*x + 6*x + 1 trap(f: Float -> Float; a,b,approx : Float; n : Int) : Float is { h = (b - a) / n; return approx/2 + h* initially s = 0.0; for i in [1 to n step 2] do x = a + i * h ; new s = s + f(x) ; return s od } integrate(f : Float -> Float; a, b: Float) : Float is initially done = false; n = 1 ; integral = (f(a) + f(b)) * (b - a) / 2; while not done do next_integral = trap(f, a, b, integral, 2 * n) ; new n = 2 * n ; new done = abs(next_integral - integral) < 1.0e-4 new integral = next_integral return next_integral od main : String is "Integral is " ++ print(integrate(Float|polyf, 1.0, 6.0) ++ "\n"
An example of using VBScript to check form data.
Function isSSN(ssns) isSSN = False If (len(ssns) = 9 or len(ssns) = 11) Then isSSN = True End If End Function Sub submit_OnClick dim namestr, ssnstr, psw, req set form = document.form1 namestr = Trim(form.NameStrField.Value) ssnstr = Trim(form.SSNStrField.Value) If (len(namestr) = 0) Then msgbox "Name is empty, please type in your name" Exit Sub ElseIf (not isSSN(ssnstr)) Then msgbox "SSN field is not the right length, please fix it" Exit Sub Else psw = InputBox("Enter your password:","Form Password","") End If req = "http://test.org/cgi/start.cgi?ssn=" & ssnstr & "&passwd=" psw loc.href = req End Sub
-- Behavioral model of a D flip-flop, from -- the US Army FCIM VHDL Tutorial. USE WORK.std_logic_1164.ALL ENTITY mydff IS GENERIC(q_out, qb_out :time); PORT(preset, clear, din, clock: :IN std_logic; q, qb : :OUT std_logic); END mydff ARCHITECTURE behavioral OF mydff IS BEGIN mydff_proc : PROCESS(preset, clear, clock) VARIABLE int_q :std_logic; BEGIN IF preset = '0' AND clear = '0' THEN IF(clock'EVENT) AND (clock = '1') THEN int_q := din; END IF; ELSEIF preset = '1' AND clear ='0' THEN int_q := '1'; ELSEIF clear = '1' AND preset = '0' THEN int_q := '0'; ELSE int_q := 'X'; ENDIF; q <= int_q AFTER q_out; int_q := NOT(int_q); qb <= int_q AFTER qb_out; END PROCESS mydff_proc; END behavioral;
' Simple program to compute factorials ' (placeholder until I write a better example) Function factorial(n as Long) If (n <= 0) Then factorial = 1 Else factorial = n * factorial(n - 1) End If End Function Dim fx(12) as Long For i = 1 to 12 fx(i) = factorial(i) Next
func cmplxplot(z, u) /* DOCUMENT cmplxplot, z, u * plots a scalar complex function of a complex variable. */ { resx=100; resy=100; s=[[sqrt(2./3.),0,1/sqrt(3)],[-1/sqrt(2*3.0),1/sqrt(2.),1/sqrt(3)], [-1/sqrt(2*3.0),-1/sqrt(2.),1/sqrt(3)]]; phi=span(-pi,pi,256); vec=array(double,3,256); vec(1,)=cos(phi); vec(2,)=sin(phi); vec(3,)=1/sqrt(2)(-); f=s(+,)*vec(+,); palette,bytscl(f(2,),top=255),bytscl(f(1,),top=255),bytscl(f(3,),top=255); xmin=min(u.re); xmax=max(u.re); ymin=min(u.im); ymax=max(u.im); zi=array(complex,resx,resy); zi.re=interp2(span(ymin,ymax,resy)(-:1:resx,),span(xmin,xmax,resx)(,-:1:resy), z.re,u.im,u.re); zi.im=interp2(span(ymin,ymax,resy)(-:1:resx,),span(xmin,xmax,resx)(,-:1:resy), z.im,u.im,u.re); // Caution: on some platforms atan(0,0) crashes ! arr=bytscl(atan(zi.im,zi.re+1e-200),cmin=-pi,cmax=pi); pli,arr, xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax; plc,abs(z),u.im,u.re,marks=0; }
One of the most novel aspects of ZPL is its facility for defining regions of arrays for parallel operations, and directions of array offsets. Associated with this facility are some array structuring features including wrapping, reflecting, and flooding of array dimensions.
program jacobi; config var n : integer = 5; -- Declarations delta : float = 0.0001; region R = [1..n, 1..n]; direction north = [-1, 0]; south = [ 1, 0]; east = [ 0, 1]; west = [ 0,-1]; procedure jacobi(); -- Entry point var A, Temp : [R] float; err : float; begin [R] A := 0.0; -- Initialization [north of R] A := 0.0; [east of R] A := 0.0; [west of R] A := 0.0; [south of R] A := 1.0; [R] repeat -- Main body Temp := (A@north+A@east+A@west+A@south) / 4.0; err := max<< abs(A-Temp); A := Temp; until err < delta; [R] writeln(A); -- Output result end;
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Descriptions in this dictionary are ©1997-99 Neal Ziring. Some examples copyright of their respective authors. Some technologies and languages are trademarked. Permission to copy descriptions is granted as long as authorship credit is preserved.
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Dictionary and script maintained by Neal Ziring, last major modifications 3/18/98. Most recent additions to dictionary and master list, 1/00.