Welcome to the Dictionary of Programming Languages, a compendium
of computer coding methods assembled to provide information and
aid your appreciation for computer science history.
Browse the dictionary by clicking on a section:
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
JK
L
M
N
O
P
QR
S
T
UV
WXYZ+
Get a full dump of the dictionary:
List of Names
Short Form
Full Form
{ Sort program adapted from "Intermediate Pascal" } { by Joe Dorward. Illustrates arrays and types. } program sort_array(input,output); const max = 9; type integer_array = array[1..max] of integer; var I, J, K, swaps, temp : integer; test_array : integer_array; begin test_array[1] := 4; test_array[2] := 7; test_array[3] := 9; test_array[4] := 3; test_array[5] := 15; test_array[6] := 2; test_array[7] := 08; test_array[8] := 05; test_array[9] := 12; writeln(' *** Initial Array ***'); writeln(' --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- '); for I := 1 to (max-1) do write('|',test_array[I]:2,' '); writeln('|',test_array[max]:2,' |'); for I := 1 to max do for J := (I 1) to max do { set J to start one ahead of I } if test_array[J] < test_array[I] then begin swaps := swaps 1; temp := test_array[J]; test_array[J] := test_array[I]; test_array[I] := temp; writeln; writeln('* * Condition After ',swaps:1,' swaps * *'); writeln(' --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- '); for K := 1 to (max-1) do write('|',test_array[K]:2,' '); write('|',test_array[max]:2,' |'); end; writeln(' * Sorting Complete *'); end.
#!/usr/bin/perl # Simple program to extract column 3 from a file # and total up the numbers. $total = 0; sub sumcolumn { my $col = shift; my $lin = shift; my @fields; if ($lin) { @fields = split(/:/,$lin); $total = $fields[2]; } } while (<>) { sumcolumn(3,$_); } print "Total of column 3 is $total\n";
<? mysql_connect("localhost","","") or die("Unable to connect to SQL server"); @mysql_select_db("php3") or die("Unable to select database"); $result = mysql_query("select * from customerTable limit 100"); ?> <table border="1"> <tr> <? while ($field=mysql_fetch_field($result)) { echo "<th>"; echo "$field->name"; echo "</th>"; } echo "</tr>"; while ($row = mysql_fetch_row($result)) { echo "<tr>"; for ($i=0; $i<mysql_num_fields($result); $i ) { echo "<td>"; echo "$row[$i]"; echo "</td>"; } echo "</tr>\n"; } echo "</table>";
The example below implements the Sieve of Erastosthenes (from the examples shipped with Pict 4.1).
now (reset checks) def interval (min:Int max:Int):(List Int) = if (>> min max) then nil else (cons min (interval (inc min) max)) def sieve (max:Int):(List Int) = ( def again (l:(List Int)):(List Int) = if (null l) then nil else (val n = (car l) if (>> (* n n) max) then l else (cons n (again (list.filter #Int l \(x) = (<> (mod x n) 0))))) (again (interval 2 max)) ) def prPrime (idx:Int x:Int):[] = if (== (mod idx 10) 9) then ((int.pr x); (nl)) else ((int.pr x); (pr " ")) (list.itApply (sieve 4000) prPrime);
// This program implements a fifo that can be used to send // data between two threads. (From the Pike 0.6 manual, sec 10) inherit Thread.Condition : r_cond; inherit Thread.Condition: w_cond; inherit Thread.Mutex: lock; mixed *buffer = allocate(128); int r_ptr, w_ptr; int query_messages() { return w_ptr - r_ptr; } // This function reads one mixed value from the fifo. // If no values are available it blocks until a write has been done. mixed read() { mixed tmp; object key=lock::lock(); while(!query_messages()) r_cond::wait(key); tmp=buffer[r_ptr % sizeof(buffer)]; w_cond::signal(); return tmp; } // This function pushes one mixed value on the fifo. // If the fifo is full it blocks until a value has been read. void write(mixed v) { object key=lock::lock(); while(query_messages() == sizeof(buffer)) w_cond::wait(key); buffer[w_ptr % sizeof(buffer)]=v; r_cond::signal(); }
R : An example for converting a number to english *LOOP T :ENTER A NUMBER, OR ZERO TO QUIT. C :$NUM= A :#Z E(Z=0) : U :*WRITNUM T :$NUM : J :*LOOP *WRITNUM U(Z<10) :*UNITS E(Z<10) : J(Z>999):*THOU J(Z>99) :*HUND J(Z>19) :*TWENTY C(Z=10) :$NUM=$NUM TEN C(Z=11) :$NUM=$NUM ELEVEN C(Z=12) :$NUM=$NUM TWELVE C(Z=13) :$NUM=$NUM THIRTEEN C(Z=14) :$NUM=$NUM FOURTEEN C(Z=15) :$NUM=$NUM FIFTEEN C(Z=16) :$NUM=$NUM SIXTEEN C(Z=17) :$NUM=$NUM SEVENTEEN C(Z=18) :$NUM=$NUM EIGHTEEN C(Z=19) :$NUM=$NUM NINETEEN E: *UNITS C(Z=1) :$NUM=$NUM ONE C(Z=2) :$NUM=$NUM TWO C(Z=3) :$NUM=$NUM THREE C(Z=4) :$NUM=$NUM FOUR C(Z=5) :$NUM=$NUM FIVE C(Z=6) :$NUM=$NUM SIX C(Z=7) :$NUM=$NUM SEVEN C(Z=8) :$NUM=$NUM EIGHT C(Z=9) :$NUM=$NUM NINE E: *TWENTY C:Y=Z%10 C:Z=Z-Y C(Z=20) :$NUM=$NUM TWENTY C(Z=30) :$NUM=$NUM THIRTY C(Z=40) :$NUM=$NUM FORTY C(Z=50) :$NUM=$NUM FIFTY C(Z=60) :$NUM=$NUM SIXTY C(Z=70) :$NUM=$NUM SEVENTY C(Z=80) :$NUM=$NUM EIGHTY C(Z=90) :$NUM=$NUM NINETY C:Z=Y E(Z=0) : J:*WRITNUM *HUND C :Y=Z%100 C :Z=(Z-Y)/100 U :*UNITS C :$NUM=$NUM HUNDRED C :Z=Y E(Z=0) : J :*WRITNUM *THOU C :X=Z%1000 C :Z=(Z-X)/1000 U :*WRITNUM C :$NUM=$NUM THOUSAND C :Z=X E(Z=0) : J :*HUND
FINDSTRINGS: PROCEDURE OPTIONS(MAIN) /* READ A STRING, THEN PRINT EVERY */ /* SUBSEQUENT LINE WITH A MATCH */ DECLARE PAT VARYING CHARACTER(100), LINEBUF VARYING CHARACTER(100), (LINENO, NDFILE, IX) FIXED BINARY; NDFILE = 0; ON ENDFILE(SYSIN) NDFILE=1; GET EDIT(PAT) (A); LINENO = 1; DO WHILE (NDFILE=0); GET EDIT(LINEBUF) (A); IF LENGTH(LINEBUF) > 0 THEN DO; IX = INDEX(LINEBUF, PAT); IF IX > 0 THEN DO; PUT SKIP EDIT (LINENO,LINEBUF)(F(2),A) END; END; LINENO = LINENO 1; END; END FINDSTRINGS;
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 % Draw a string at an angle at a point /printat { % str x y angle => - gsave 4 1 roll translate exch rotate 0 0 moveto show grestore } def % find the center of the page /pagecenter { % - => cx cy clippath pathbbox 4 1 roll exch sub 2. div 3 1 roll sub 2. div } def % set up font and constants /Times-Bold findfont 36 scalefont setfont pagecenter /cy exch def /cx exch def /steps 9 def /basegray 0.75 def /incrgray basegray steps div def /baseangle 360 steps div def /incrangle 360 steps div def % draw a string as a rosette steps { basegray setgray (PostScript) cx cy baseangle printat /basegray basegray incrgray sub def /baseangle baseangle incrangle add def } repeat % done with this page showpage
% Quicksort in Prolog, by Keesey adapted from Bratko gtq(X,Y) :- X @> Y. quicksort( [],[] ). quicksort( [X | Tail], Sorted) :- split( X, Tail, Small, Big), quicksort( Small, SortedSmall), quicksort( Big, SortedBig), conc( SortedSmall, [X | SortedBig], Sorted). split( _, [], [], []). split( X,[Y | Tail], [Y | Small], Big) :- gtq( X, Y),!, split( X, Tail, Small, Big). split( X, [Y | Tail], Small, [Y | Big] ) :- split( X, Tail, Small, Big). conc([],L,L). conc( [X | L1], L2, [X | L3]) :- conc( L1, L2, L3).
# standard binary search tree from # a tree data structure package by Dan Stubbs # class binary_tree: def __init__ (self): self.tree = None def insert (self, key): if self.tree: self._insert (self.tree, key) else: self.tree = node(key) def _insert (self, tree, key): if key < tree.key: if tree.left: self._insert (tree.left, key) else: tree.left = node(key) else: if tree.right: self._insert (tree.right, key) else: tree.right = node(key)
Descriptions in this dictionary are ©1997-99 Neal Ziring. Some examples copyright of their respective authors. Some technologies and languages are trademarked. Permission to copy descriptions is granted as long as authorship credit is preserved.
Comments on this dictionary, corrections and suggestions, are all welcome. Please use email, the address is ziring@home.com
[Ziring MicroWeb Home] [Dictionary Start] [Sign Guestbook]
Dictionary and script maintained by Neal Ziring, last major modifications 3/18/98. Most recent additions to dictionary and master list, 1/00.