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List of Names
- Language type:
L - Rule-based or logical
Gödel is an interpreted declarative
language based on typed first-order logic.
It was designed as a research vehicle, and
also as a language for teaching logic
Data types supported by Gödel include
integers, rational and real
numbers, sets, strings, tuples, and symbols.
The language is strongly typed, and the
type mechanisms play an important role in
Unlike most logic-based languages, Gödel
has a module system and cross-module
Gödel is also intended for research
into program generation and transformation,
parallel constraint programming, and
The only existing implementation of the
language was written on top of Prolog.
implementation of Gödel is available in source
form, as well as binaries for various
Unix systems. Some documentation and
example programs come with the distribution,
but real descriptions of the language are
limited to hardcopy books.
P.M. Hill & J.W. Lloyd, 1994.
- See Also:
The developers of Gödel point out that
some of the weaknesses of Prolog (lack
of data typing, lack of negation safety,
etc.) are remedied by this newer language.
It seems that development work
on Gödel has slowed, in favor
of work on Escher.
- Sample code:
% This is one of the example programs
% included with the V1.4 distribution.
PREDICATE Queen : List(Integer).
PREDICATE Safe : List(Integer).
DELAY Safe(x) UNTIL NONVAR(x).
PREDICATE NoDiagonal : Integer * Integer * List(Integer).
DELAY NoDiagonal(_,_,z) UNTIL NONVAR(z).
y ~= Abs(z - x) &
- Language type:
M - Mathematical or Simulation
GPSS, the General Purpose Simulation System,
is a family of mostly-declarative languages designed
for discrete-event simulation and system
A GPSS simulation program consists of a
set of blocks, and connections between them.
Block types include generators, queues,
servers, selectors/routers, data
collectors, timing and computational nodes, and
various other types. Data types supported
in simulation models varied between
versions, but usually included integers,
reals, strings, and records. GPSS systems
always had sophisticated random sample
generators to model various probability
distributions that arise in modelling of
Some versions of GPSS are still available
for sale commercially, no free versions
seem to be available. Documentation for
the language is not easily available
- See Also:
There were many dialects and editions
of GPSS in the period of about 1961-1991.
IBM created GPSS, and sold GPSS II and III,
GPSS/360, and GPSS V. Other vendors
created advanced versions (GPSS/H,
GPSSR/PC) and user-friendly versions (GPSS/PC),
and Unix-oriented versions (GPSS/C).
Versions of GPSS after about 1988 supported
various extensions for more sophisticated
input and output. For example, GPSS/H
supports The Extended Simulation System (TESS),
which allowed simulations to employ relational
databases, obtain input with forms, draw
graphs, etc. Some versions even supported
animation of simulation execution.
By the mid-1990s, GPSS had been largely
superseded in industry by newer and
more interactive tools, and more
sophisticated languages (e.g. SimscriptII).
It may still be used as a teaching tool
in the study of discrete-event simulation
- Sample code:
A simple model of 20 barbers serving a
stream of customers.
BARBERS STORAGE 20
UNLINK MIN BARBERS,BARBGO,1,(UTIL)PL
CLEAVE AVANCE .5
BARBGEN GENERATE ,,,20,5,1PH,1PL 20 BARBERS
BARBGO SEIZE PH(IBARB)
- 2 entries retrieved.
Descriptions in this dictionary are ©1997-99 Neal Ziring. Some
examples copyright of their respective authors. Some
technologies and languages are trademarked. Permission to
copy descriptions is granted as long as authorship credit is preserved.
Comments on this dictionary, corrections and suggestions, are all welcome.
Please use email, the address is firstname.lastname@example.org
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Dictionary and script maintained by Neal Ziring, last major modifications 3/18/98. Most recent
additions to dictionary and master list, 1/00.